A version of this article was first published on My Green Closet.
Let’s cut right to it, you shouldn’t use fabric softeners. They’re not only bad for your clothes (especially athletic wear which we’ll get into) but also not great for your health or the environment, it’s just not worth it. Fabric softeners became popular in the mid-20th century because harsh dyes, detergents, and dryers were making them rough and scratchy. With better technology, however, fabrics softeners and dryer sheets are no longer necessary, yet still very commonly used and most people don’t think twice about it.
How they work
Fabric softeners typically come in 2 different forms – a liquid used in the washing machine or a coated sheet used in the dryer. They are designed to prevent static, help with wrinkles, add a scent, and make the materials feel softer. They do this by covering the fabric in a thin, lubricating film. This coating prevents static by making the garments slippery to reduce friction and the softener adds a positive charge to neutralise the negative static charge. It also helps to separate the fibres making things like towels fluffier. Additionally they are typically scented and designed so the scent will remain in the fabric. Sounds nice, so…
Why are they bad for your clothes?
You might have noticed on some tags, especially with performance clothing, they specifically say NOT to use fabric softeners. This is because the waxy coating can interfere with moisture wicking and absorption properties – athletic fabrics are designed to wick moisture from the skin to the outside of the fabric where it can evaporate, but if you cover the fabric in a waxy coating it’s like plugging up a drinking straw and blocks the ability to move moisture. The coating also builds up over time making it harder for water and detergent to permeate the fabric so odors and stains are more difficult to get out and become sealed in. I get questions about why workout clothes can still have a smell even after washing, and my first response is always to ask if the person uses fabric softeners/dryer sheets, which is almost always the problem.
Although the fabrics might feel extra soft and nice at first, this build-up of fatty film overtime makes fabrics less absorbent. This is especially a problem with towels which obviously need to absorb a lot of moisture, as well as bed linens and underwear/base-layers which absorb sweat for comfort.
Fabric softeners can also stain your clothes, liquid softeners can occasionally leave blueish or grey stain spots on garments and overtime the waxy build-up can also cause yellowing on whites.
Finally they can leave residue in your machines which isn’t good for the machines and also means you can get fabric softener residue on clothes even when you’re not using it in that load.
They’re also not particularly safe…
Studies have found that liquid fabric softeners can actually make fabrics more flammable, which no one wants.
One of the biggest issues with fabric softener is that they contain fragrance and the ingredients of fragrance don’t have to be disclosed, so we don’t know what exactly is in the product and there’s the potential they can contain toxic ingredients. Although in some countries like Canada cleaning products actually don’t have to disclose all ingredients anyway so it’s not just the fragrance where there are transparency issues.
Also a major ingredient in a lot of fabric softeners is Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs or “quats”) which are used to help combat static but can cause skin and respiratory irritation. Studies of medial professionals who used cleaning products with quats (they are also anti-bacterial) found an increase in asthma in those who were regularly exposed to them.
For the environment
QACs don’t easily biodegrade, especially in water, and can be toxic to aquatic organisms.This is obviously extra worrisome since as a laundry product they go directly into out water systems.
Fabric softeners can also contain petroleum or palm oil derived ingredients. They also might not be cruelty-free/vegan – an ingredient found in some fabric softeners is Dihydrogenated tallow dimethyl ammonium chloride which is derived from animal fat.
I also wonder if the coating and synthetic compounds in fabric softeners effects the biodegradability of clothing but haven’t been able to find any studies on it.
What are some alternatives?
Air-dry your clothes, it helps reduce static! I also really encourage air-drying because it not only saves a lot of energy (and $) but really increases the longevity of your clothes. There’s less rubbing and wear, colour fading and shrinkage from heat, plus dryers break down spandex/elastane faster causing your clothes to become misshapen, and they cause microscopic damage to the fabric – just look in the lint tray, those are all fibres that have been broken off or pulled from the fabric! Air-dryed clothes will definitely feel less soft than using a dryer or especially if you’re used to fabric softeners, but you can try just putting them in the dryer for few minutes to fluff them up if that’s a problem.
If you NEED to use a dryer, wool dryer balls can not only help soften your clothes but also cut down on drying time which saves energy. I’ve also heard of people adding essential oils to their dryer balls for some scent, but make sure you don’t use too much/stain your clothes, and use oils that are okay with heat. Some people also say dryer balls help with static – I haven’t tried them but I’d love to hear if you use wool dryer balls and how they work!
Also don’t over-dry your clothes, the dryness is what causes static so taking clothes out when they just dry will help reduce static.
Avoid synthetic fabrics as these tend to be the ones with static issues, you can also keep your natural and synthetic garments separate to help with static – fluffy natural fibres rubbing against the synthetics builds up the static charge. It’s also a great idea to wash your synthetics in a Guppyfriend Bag which not only keeps them from rubbing against your other clothes but also catches the plastic microfibres they release into the water.
Another option I hear a lot about is adding a quarter or half cup of vinegar to the rinse cycle as a fabric softener (although be sure not to use with bleach), again I’ve never found the need for my clothes to be softer but if you’ve tried this I’d be interested in how it works!
As with any changes it takes some time to adjust, but everyone I know whose stopped using fabric softeners says they were basically just doing it out of habit or thought you were “supposed to” and having stopped won’t ever go back.
Can you remove fabric softener already in clothes?
So I tried a few things on the leggings I bought that were full of fabric softener; first I washed them a couple times but this didn’t do much. Then I tried soaking them in water and castille soap for a few hours and this definitely made an impact although I could still smell the fabric softener. The most recent thing I’ve tried is soaking them in some vinegar and water and this also seemed to have helped a bit, but the smell is still there. Throughout this I’ve also been hanging them up on a drying rack to air-out as much as possible.
While I have definitely gotten rid of most of the smell (and it doesn’t give me a headache anymore just wearing them) it’s difficult to say if I’m only removing the fragrance or the actual fabric softener coating. The leggings still have a slightly waxy feel to them but it’s hard to gauge if any progress has been made. Hopefully as I keep wearing and washing them I can get rid of more of the softener but I don’t know if they’ll ever be back to the way they were originally.
If you have any other tips or suggestions for removing fabric softener please leave them in the comments!